Meet iTunes 12.2 for the Mac

Meet iTunes 12.2 for the Mac

With the addition of support for Apple Music, Apple has changed the way iTunes works.

In adding support for Apple Music, iTunes has been tweaked to thoroughly integrate support for the new service. Here’s what to expect when you next open your desktop music application. 

What’s changed in terms of interface?

The first thing you’ll notice is a colorful new icon for iTunes 12.2 — the flat red icon is replaced with a multicolored icon with a white interior.

iTunes’ interface hasn’t been radically reworked in this new release; it’s mostly the same, in fact. But the way the app presents itself depends on whether you’ve signed up for an Apple Music or iTunes Match subscription.

If you’re rocking iTunes 12.2 without an Apple Music subscription, it looks much like the iTunes of yore, with one new addition: Your list of tabs now includes My Music, Playlists, Radio, the new Connect tab, and iTunes Store. The Radio tab has been slightly tweaked, too, to replace iTunes Radio with Apple Music radio stations and to add the 24/7 Beats 1 station.

Add an iTunes Match subscription, and you’ll see a Match tab before iTunes Store.

 Sign up for an Apple Music subscription, however, and you’ll get two new tabs—For You and New, which appear between Playlists and Radio—along with the Connect tab next to the iTunes Store tab. (Note: In iTunes > Preferences > Parental, you can turn off the Connect tab: This makes the tab disappear.)

 There has also been a change to nomenclature: All references to iTunes in the Cloud are gone; in its place is the new iCloud Music Library, which both iTunes Match and Apple Music use.

Regardless of whether you have an Apple Music account, you’ll find your music controls, volume, currently playing song, Account button, and Search field along the top of the screen.

Where can I find my artists, songs, and albums?

iTunes 12.2 uses the tabs to differentiate each of the app’s features; as such, what used to be the Artist, Song, and Album tabs are now categories within the My Music tab. Click on the category button in the upper right corner (it defaults to Artists) and choose song, artist, album, composers, or genres.

To view which songs you’ve stored locally and which ones are stored in iCloud Music Library, click the category button and select Songs.

 Once you’ve done that, click the category button once more and select Show Columns, then make sure iCloud Download is checked. Cloud icons will now appear next to songs you have in iCloud Music Library but haven’t downloaded locally to your Mac.

What about playlists, they’re still there, right?

Still there, and still a tab along the top bar. Things look a bit different in the playlists section: A sidebar on the left of the app displays quick access to your library and iOS devices (in case you want to create new playlists and add songs to or from them), along with two groups of playlists organized into Apple Music Playlists and Playlists, respectively.

 The former collects any playlists you’ve saved from the Apple Music catalog—they’re non-interactive and exist as-is; the latter section displays all the playlists, Smart playlists, and Genius playlists you’ve created yourself.

Largely, playlists still work the same way they did before: Choose a playlist and press Play or Shuffle to begin listening immediately. In iTunes 12.2, you can also share playlists now, as well as add them to your Up Next queue.


Not sure where to find something in iTunes 12.2? Let us know below and we’ll try to help.

Peter Cohen contributed to an earlier version of this article.

How to pick a startup disk for your Mac at boot time

How to pick a startup disk for your Mac at boot time

Apple logo black background Mac screenshot 001

Most people are content with booting their Mac straight into OS X, but certain multi-boot situations warrant choosing a different startup disk. But why would anyone in their right mind have multiple operating systems on their computer, you ask.

Well, if you like trying out new things out before they’re available to everyone, chances are you keep El Capitan installed on a separate partition.

Besides, some people like yours truly prefer to keep a bootable USB thumb drive in a safe place for times when something terribly wrong goes with their Mac.

There are two ways to choosing a startup disk.

One involves choosing a boot disk via a System Preferences pane called Startup Disk, which my colleague Jeff recently covered. This tutorial deals with the other method which involves picking a boot disk as your Mac is starting up.

This tutorial will educate you on choosing a boot disk during the startup process using a feature of OS X called Startup Manager and explain why and when to use Startup Manager over selecting a startup disk in System Preferences.

Let’s get started.

What’s a startup disk?

A startup disk is a partition of a drive or a volume that contains a usable operating system. Your startup disk doesn’t have to contain OS X.

For example, your Mac can boot directly into Windows if you’re using Boot Camp 6. It can also boot into Ubuntu or any other operating system supported by your Mac’s hardware.

As mentioned before, you can, one, set your computer to automatically use a startup disk using System Preferences, and two, temporarily override this choice at boot time using Startup Manager.

What is Startup Manager?

Startup Manager is a built-in application that you can invoke during the startup process to pick a volume to boot your Mac from.

How to choose a startup disk at boot time

To pick a disk to start your Mac from while it’s booting, follow these simple steps for using OS X’S built-in feature called Startup Manager, which can be invoked via a simple keystroke.

Step 1: Turn on your Mac by pressing the power button, or restart it if it’s already on by choosing Restart in the Apple menu.

Step 2: Press and hold the Option (⌥) key immediately upon hearing the startup chime and release the key after Startup Manager appears. Startup Manager will scan connected drives and will present drive icons of any volumes it finds, as shown below.

OS X Startup Manager Mac screenshot 001

Step 3: Highlight the volume you want to use by using your mouse or trackpad, or left and right arrow keys.

Step 4: Double-click or press the Return key to boot your Mac from the volume you just selected. Keep in mind that your Mac can only start up from a disk containing an operating system.

Tip: You can also attach external hard drives with an operating system: Startup Manager will automatically add bootable volumes as you connect them.

How to change your default startup disk

To tell your Mac to automatically use a specific startup volume each time your restart or turn it on, open the System Preferences application in the Dock and click the Startup Disk pane. You will be presented with various disk icons, as shown in Jeff’s video walkthrough embedded below.

Now select the system you would like to use to startup your computer and click the Restart button. From this point on, your Mac will always boot into the selected startup disk until you change your choice in System Preferences or temporarily override it through Startup Manager.

Startup Manager vs. System Preferences > Startup Disk

As explained before, choices you make via the Startup Disk pane will stick until you choose another one in System Preferences or temporarily override these defaults at boot time in Startup Manager.

OS X Yosemite System Preferences Startup Disk Mac screenshot 001

Full tutorial: how to choose a startup disk using System Preferences.

So when should you use Startup Manager over System Preferences?

Basically, if you want your Mac to boot automatically into Windows 10 every time it’s restarted or turned on, use System Preferences > Startup Disk. Want to boot into Windows, Ubuntu or whatever but just this one time, without changing your default startup disk?

Use Startup Manager instead.

Startup Manager won’t let you select a startup disk?

If you cannot choose your startup disk in Startup Manager, make sure that it contains a bootable copy of an operating system such as OS X, Windows or Linux.

Simply formatting a drive or partitioning a disk won’t cut it because Startup Manager looks for partitions and connected drive that contain a usable operating system.

If you’re interested in creating a dual-boot environment on your Mac, check out these easy to follow tutorial that cover deploying Yosemite and El Capitan on a separate partition and USB flash drive:

For additional insights, browse our archive of how-to posts, tips and tutorials.

Five common use cases for Startup Manager

There are many situations that warrant using Startup Manager. Here are some of the more obvious scenarios that average users might encounter:

1. Install an operating system from external media

If you’re old-school and your Mac has an optical drive connected to it, you can insert a disc containing an installer for OS X, Linux, Windows or other supported operating system and boot directly into the installer via Startup Manager. A usable operating system can also reside on a FireWire, Thunderbolt or USB external drive. As long as the disk is bootable, it should show up in Startup Manager.

2. Temporarily override default startup disk

As mentioned before, you should use Startup Manager to choose a startup disk for a single session as it won’t permanently change your default startup disk selected in System Preferences. Let’s say Yosemite is your default startup disk and you have El Capitan on another partition. You can use Startup Manager at boot time to temporarily override Yosemite and start up your computer straight into El Capitan.

3. Boot into other OS natively

Sometimes you may be wondering what’s life like on the “other side.”

In addition to running another operating system alongside OS X using virtualization software such as Parallels Desktop, it’s also possible to boot your Mac directly into a “foreign” operating system via Startup Manager. Typically, I would boot my Mac into Microsoft’s Windows 7 whenever I feel like playing that first-person Windows shooter that everyone’s talking about.

4. Software development and testing

People who develop software for a living typically have multiple instances of OS X to test their apps in multiple environments in order to ensure they run without a hiccup. In addition, many bloggers, journalists and power typically keep OS X betas separate from stable OS X releases. Startup Manager makes it ridiculously easy to choose between them at boot time.

5. Troubleshoot startup issues

Has your Mac been acting up lately?

An improper shutdown, forced restart or power interruption can lead to file system errors that may prevent your computer from starting up. Choosing a different boot device is typically the first step in resolving common startup issues. And to be 100 percent on the safe side, I have another copy of OS X installed on a USB drive should something go terribly wrong with my Mac and I’m in the middle of doing my work.

Other ways to start up your Mac

Your Mac can start up in a number of different ways, including the following methods that our tutorials provide step-by-step instructions for:

  • Safe ModeSafe Mode disables certain features of OS X and loads only essential components to make troubleshooting software issues simpler. In addition, Safe Mode includes an automatic disk check and repair which might resolve boot problems and allow you to start up your computer successfully.
  • Verbose ModeVerbose Mode is a text-only environment which displays status messages as the startup process progresses. Use Verbose Mode to resolve issues with kernel extensions and custom hardware. If that doesn’t sound too sexy, you can enter Verbose Mode to see what’s going on behind the scenes and watch as OS X is loading its components.

We will be covering more ways to start up your Mac in future tutorials.

See also:

If you like this tutorial, please consider bookmarking and passing it along to your friends and other Mac support folks.

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How to move Music or Photos to a new Mac using Time Machine

How to move Music or Photos to a new Mac using Time Machine

Time Machine

With Time Machine, it’s easy to restore all of your data back to a new Mac or to a fresh install of OS X. As we outlined previously, users can choose to restore all data, or pick and choose the data that they wish to restore during the initial setup process of OS X, and that includes both music and photos.

Another option is to simply restore the entire Pictures or Music folder via the Time Machine interface. We show you how to do that via this post.

In the following tutorial, we’ll show you another quick and easy way to recover photo or music data from a Time Machine backup—directly from the backup folder on your Time Machine external drive.

Note: Your backups folder is read-only via Finder, so you shouldn’t be able to add, delete or change information there. You can however, copy information from the backups folder, which is what we will do in this tutorial.

Step 1: Open the external drive that houses the Time Machine backup folder (Backups.backupdb)

Step 2: Open Backups.backupdb and navigate to the Latest folder

Time Machine Backups Folder

Step 3: Drill down to your Users folder, and find the Music or Pictures folder

Step 5: Open the Music folder and find the iTunes folder, or open the Pictures folder and find the Photo library.  You can then drag either item to your Mac’s Music or Pictures folder, depending on which one you wish to restore

As you can see, Time Machine backups offer lots of flexibility. You can access and restore individual data during the initial OS X setup process, you can restore directly from the Time Machine section of the menu bar and restore individual files, or you can do so manually via Finder as explained above.

How do you recover files from your Time Machine backups?

Sådan overfører du Spotify-playlister til Apple Music

Sådan overfører du Spotify-playlister til Apple Music

Hvordan overfører du playlister fra Spotify til Apple Music? Læs med her og bliv meget klogere.

Er du Spotify-bruger og har du lyst til at skifte til Apple Music – eventuelt bare for at prøve det af i den gratis tre måneders prøveperiode? I såfald har du sikkert en hel del spillelister i Spotify, som du gerne vil have med over i Apple Music. Måske har du brugt timevis på at lave spillelister til forskellige formål. Det ville være ærgerligt, at al det skulle gå tabt bare fordi du vil skifte udbyder af musikstreaming.

Hvordan overfører du så spillelister fra Spotify til Apple Music? Det kedelige svar er, at det gør du ikke. Der findes som sådan ikke nogen funktion i Apple Music til at importere spillelister fra Spotify – og Spotify har selvfølgelig heller ingen interesse i at udvikle et sådant værktøj.

Heldigvis findes der tredjepartløsninger, der nogenlunde kan klare ærterne. Eller i hvertfald gøre det betydeligt nemmere. Man får ikke overført selve spillelisten, men kun musikken på spillelisten. Når det er gjort skal man manuelt oprette spillelisten. Det er heldigvis hurtigt klaret, når først musikken ligger der. Så det kan altså med en lille smule snilde lade sig gøre at overføre sin Spotify-playliste til Apple Music.

Sådan overfører du Spotify-playlister til Apple Music

Inden du går i gang skal du selvfølgelig have oprettet et (prøve-)abonnement på Apple Music. Du skal også have adgang til en computer med iTunes, og du skal være logget ind med dit Apple ID.

1) Start med at hente STAMP på Det findes til både OS X og Windows. Prisen er 8 euro, men der findes og en gratisudgave, der kan importere op til 10 numre ad gangen. Så kan du prøve det inden du køber.

2) Installer appen og åbn den.

3) Før den virker, skal den have adgang til at kontrollere din computere. På Mac skal det slås til i Systemindstillinger > Sikkerhed og anonymitet. Her skal du vælge fanebladet “Anonymitet” øverst og dernæst “tilgængelighed” i venstre side. Føj STAMP til listen over programmer, der kan kontrollere din computer. Hvordan det gøres på Windows, ved jeg ikke.

4) Nu kan du begynde importen. Log ind på Spotify (eller en af de andre understøttede tjenester) og gå i gang.

5) Alt efter antallet at numre, er det en proces, der kan tage (rigtig) lang tid. Undervejs kontrollerer STAMP både tastatur og mus på din computer, så du kan ikke bruge den til andre ting samtidig.

6) Efter at musiken er importeret, skal selve spillelisten oprettes manuelt. Det klares heldigvis nemt ved at markere den importerede musik eller dele heraf og dernæst oprette playlisten. Importer eventuelt en spilleliste ad gangen.

Løber du ind i problemer undervejs, så genstart iTunes og STAMP og eventuelt computeren og prøv igen.

Vær opmærksom på, at Apple Music ikke kan genkende al musik. Det skyldes at Spotify og Apple Music har listet musikken under forskellige navne etc. Regn med at omkrig 20% ikke kan findes.

Der findes et tilsvarende løsning kaldet “Move to Apple Music”. Den kan du hente her:

Dette er som sagt ikke en 100% gylden løsning. Der er stadig lidt manuelt arbejde, men det er i hvert fald nemmere end at skulle finde hvert enkelt nummer manuelt i Apple Music. Så indtil Apple lancere en måde at importere spillelister på, er det den bedste løsning.

Tip: Sådan sletter du alle notifikationer på Apple Watch

Tip: Sådan sletter du alle notifikationer på Apple Watch

Her er et lille tip til, hvordan du hurtigt kan slette alle notifikationer på Apple Watch,

Har du et Apple Watch har du sikkert oplevet at blive overdænget med notifikationer. Derfor kan det også være en god ide at begrænse dem til det absolut nødvendige. Alligevel kan man komme i en situation, hvor det at afvise dem alle en efter en er unødig spil af tid.

Der findes dog heldigvis en måde, så man kan afvise dem alle på en gang. Det er ikke helt logisk, hvordan man gør, men når vi har vist dig det, er det ret nemt.

Sådan sletter du alle notifikationer på Apple Watch

Tricket er at bruge force touch.

1) Swipe ned fra toppen for at få adgang til notifikationerne, som sædvanlig.

2) Tryk og hold med et fast tryk indtil der kommer en billede frem med mulighed for at slette alle notifikationerne.

Det er meget hurtigere end at skulle slette dem en efter en.

How to recover deleted files, contacts, calendars, and photos from iCloud

How to recover deleted files, contacts, calendars, and photos from iCloud

Get back what you deleted or make sure it’s gone forever using

When you delete something on OS X it goes into Trash and, from there, you can either recover it or eradicate it forever. iCloud offers something similar, only its deleted files exist not on your Mac, iPhone, or iPad, but online. In some ways it’s even more powerful—deleted files can be restored for up to 30 days, even if you’ve emptied the Trash on your Mac or wiped them from your iPhone or iPad. That’s great if you make a mistake and either delete something by accident or delete something you later realize you shouldn’t have.

Note: If you try to go to on iPhone and iPad, you’ll be redirected to Apple’s iOS apps. To get to the website, you need to use a your web browser on Mac or Windows PC.

How to recover deleted files from iCloud

If you delete an iCloud Drive file on your Mac, OS X will tell you it’s moving the file to Trash and removing it from all your other devices. If you delete on on your iPhone or iPad, iOS will tell you it’s gone forever. If you empty your Trash, leave your Mac, or confirm deletion on your iPhone or iPad, however, you can still recover the file on

  1. Launch Safari or your web browser of choice.
  2. Go to
  3. Enter your Apple ID (iCloud) username and password.
  4. Click on the arrow button.

  5. Click on Settings.
  6. Click on Restore Files under Advanced all the way at the bottom left.

  7. Click to check off the boxes to the left of the files you want to restore.
  8. Or click Select All if you really need to restore everything.
  9. Click Restore Files.

While the list is limited to 30 days worth of files—they’re deleted irrevocably after that period of time—depending on how much you delete, it could still be a lengthy process. If you accidentally bulk-deleted a ton of files you need back, choosing Select All and then filtering down again on your Mac may be a faster way to go.

How to recover contacts from iCloud

You can’t restore individual contacts from iCloud but you can restore one of the backup archives that iCloud makes periodically. Restoring an older backup will remove any contacts added since the snapshot was taken (iCloud will, however, snapshot the current database before it restores the old one). It’s best used if your contacts are corrupted or you somehow lose a large number of them.

If you really need to restore, but also really need to save recently added contacts, export them first on your Mac so you can import them after the restore is completed.

  1. Launch Safari or your web browser of choice.
  2. Go to
  3. Enter your Apple ID (iCloud) username and password.
  4. Click on the arrow button.

  5. Click on Settings.
  6. Click on Restore Contacts under Advanced all the way at the bottom left.

  7. Click the Restore button the right of the archive you want to restore.
  8. Click Restore to confirm.

How to recover calendars and reminders from iCloud

Calendars and reminders are archived and backed up together on You can’t restore one without the other, or individual items from either. You need to restore an entire archive at once. Restoring an older backup will remove any events or reminders added since the snapshot was taken (iCloud will, however, snapshot the current database before it restores the old one). It’s best used if your calendars or reminders are corrupted or you somehow lose a large number of them.

Also note, all sharing information will be lost if you restore, so you’ll need to re-share afterwards. Anyone invited to an event will get a cancelation and then a new invitation.

  1. Launch Safari or your web browser of choice.
  2. Go to
  3. Enter your Apple ID (iCloud) username and password.
  4. Click on the arrow button.

  5. Click on Settings.
  6. Click on Restore Calendars and Reminders under Advanced all the way at the bottom left.

  7. Click the Restore button the right of the archive you want to restore.
  8. Click Restore to confirm.

How to recover photos and videos from iCloud

Photos and videos can be recovered from the Recently Deleted album on Mac, iPhone, or iPad, so you don’t have to go to to restore them. If you don’t have one of your devices available, however, or you’re already on, you can recover them online as well.

  1. Launch Safari or your web browser of choice.
  2. Go to
  3. Enter your Apple ID (iCloud) username and password.
  4. Click on the arrow button.

  5. Click on Photos.
  6. Click on Albums at the top.

  7. Click the Recently Deleted album.
  8. Click on Select Photos at the top.

  9. Click on the photos you want to restore.
  10. Clock on Recover.

While the album is limited to 40 days worth of photos and videos—they’re deleted irrevocably after that period of time—depending on how much you delete, it could still be a lengthy process. If you accidentally bulk-deleted a ton of photos and videos you need back, choosing Select All and then filtering down again on your Mac may be a faster way to go.

How to boot your Mac in Verbose Mode

How to boot your Mac in Verbose Mode

OS X Verbose mode

We previously discussed how booting your Mac into OS X’s Safe Mode can help troubleshoot various issues with your computer. In more obscure situations and borderline cases, however, Safe Mode may not be enough to understand why your Mac freezes or crashes during the system boot process.

Enter OS X’s Verbose Mode.

Not only does Verbose Mode makes it easy to access detailed status messages as your Mac is starting up, but also lets you see what’s really going on behind the scenes and watch as OS X loads kernel extensions and other startup items.

In this tutorial, we’re going to cover booting your Mac in OS X’s Verbose Mode, explain in which situations it might come in handy and give you some handy tips related to using Verbose Mode.

Verbose Mode explained

Verbose Mode is like normal booting mode, with one exception: instead of watching the
progress bar filling or the spinning indicator spinning, it gives you peak under the hood and see the output of what’s happening every time the system starts up.

As such, Verbose Mode is useful for troubleshooting software issues you may be experiencing with OS X or third-party apps. It’s also indispensable for software development.

How to boot in Verbose Mode

To startup your Mac in Verbose Mode, follow these simple steps:

Step 1: If your Mac is on, turn it off by choosing Shut Down in the Apple menu.

Step 1: Now press the power button to start your Mac.

Step 1: Right upon hearing the startup chime, press and hold the Command (⌘) – V key combination for Verbose Mode.

You’ll know that you have successfully entered Verbose Mode when you see white text appear on the screen as if you were in the MS-DOS text mode from the 1980’s, as depicted on the screenshot at the top of the post.

You will automatically exit Verbose Mode when the Mac’s startup process progresses sufficiently and the OS X login screen or desktop appears.

Tip: If your Mac does not progress beyond Verbose Mode, just press the power button until it shuts down. If your Mac is connected to a faulty external keyboard causing it to detect a wrong key press during boot, unplug the keyboard when booting, use your Mac notebook’s built-in keyboard, or hook up another wired or wireless keyboard.

How to always boot in Verbose Mode

Normally, hitting Command (⌘) – V starts up your Mac in Verbose Mode until next restart.

Making OS X always boot into Verbose Mode involves a little bit of Terminal trickery to adjust your Mac’s firmware with the ‘nvram’ command.

Step 1: Navigate to your Mac’s Applications > Utilities folder and open the Terminal application. Alternatively, click the Spotlight icon in the menu bar and search for ‘terminal’.

Step 1: Type the following command into the Terminal window and hit Return. You might need to provide your Mac’s administrator password.

sudo nvram boot-args="-v"

Executing this command will ensure that every system boot from now on is in Verbose Mode, whether you invoke it manually upon hearing the startup chime or not.

Step 3: To disable automatic booting in Verbose Mode, execute the following command in Terminal:

sudo nvram boot-args=""

Now OS X will start up normally at each booth unless of course you hit the modifier keys immediately upon hearing the system’s boot chimes.

Tip: Using Terminal can be a nice shortcut for starting up a remote Mac in Verbose Mode, especially if it doesn’t have a keyboard attached to it. Just log into a remote Mac using SSH and execute the aforementioned Terminal command.

Things your Mac does in Verbose Mode

Verbose Mode is no different than OS X’s normal booting mode.

In a nutshell, Verbose Mode replaces the startup graphics with a text-only mode to show you everything the computer is doing during the boot process. All Startup Items and Login Items are loaded normally in Verbose Mode, as are required kernel extensions, user-installed fonts, drivers and so forth.

When to boot in Verbose Mode

Some of the situations that warrant booting into Verbose Mode include:

  • If you’re a developer—If you develop software for a living, you’ll want to boot into Verbose Mode to troubleshoot issues with your app.
  • If you have startup issues—Sometimes your Mac may crash during startup and Verbose Mode is one way to troubleshoot a startup issue. In fact, Verbose Mode is especially useful when used in conjunction with OS X’s Safe Mode booting.
  • If you have custom hardware setup—People who hook up specialized peripherals to their Mac, like DJ decks, Thunderbolt drives, digitizers and so forth can identify problems in Verbose Mode by checking out the messages to see if software support for your peripheral has loaded successfully.
  • If you’re curious—As mentioned before, Verbose Mode lets you peak behind the scenes and see what exactly is going on during the OS X booting process.

Again, as no feature is disable or crippled in Verbose Mode, feel free to use it without fearing that booting in this mode will limit what you can do on your Mac.

Still having issues?

If you’re having issues entering Verbose Mode, or it’s not helping fix issues your Mac may be exhibiting, try the following:

  • I cannot enter Verbose Mode—You will not be able to use Verbose Mode if the Mac owner or administrator has enabled Open Firmware Password Protection.
  • Verbose Mode didn’t solve my issue—Your next best bet is Safe Mode. Learn how, when and why you should use OS X’s Safe Mode in this how-to. Booting your Mac in Safe Mode loads only essential OS X items, helping isolate any software problems you might have.

Because Startup Items and Login Items are disabled in Safe Mode and certain features are turned off, such as native display drivers, advanced Wi-Fi and file sharing, some apps might not work correctly in Safe Mode.

See also:

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How to View EXIF Data of Any Picture in Photos for Mac

How to View EXIF Data of Any Picture in Photos for Mac

Viewing EXIF data of a picture in Photos on Mac OS X

The Photos app for Mac allows users to quickly see EXIF metadata of any image contained within the applications library. For those who aren’t familiar, EXIF data is raw information about the picture file, containing details about the camera and settings used to take the picture, the aperture, ISO, shutter speed, and you’ll also find the date and time the picture was taken, as well as being able to see the file name, file type, file size, and resolution of a chosen image. For pictures taken with iPhone, you’ll even be able to tell if the image was taken with the iPhones front or back camera. And with pictures that have GPS location access from an iPhone or Android, you may even find the location a photo was taken as well.

Viewing the additional technical EXIF details of any image in Photos app for Mac is really easy, you can do this from the general thumbnail view of Photos, Albums, Projects, or Shared images, or you can get to the EXIF data right from an open picture:

  • Right-click (or Control+click) on any picture in the Photos app and choose “Get Info”

How to access exif data of pictures in Photos app for Mac OS X

Yup it’s that easy. You’ll immediately see a little pop-up window appear in Photos app with the details of the picture in the following order: image file name, date and time image was taken, camera type, camera aperture setting, photo resolution and image file size, image file type, ISO setting, f-stop aperture, and shutter speed.

Viewing EXIF data of a picture in Photos on Mac OS X

This “Get Info” window also allows users to provide additional details about pictures by adding a title to the picture that won’t override the file name (for example, “IMG_3839.JPG” isn’t too informative, but “Shasta Water Reflections” is a bit more meaningful), a description, and even keywords that you can search on your own. Finally, you can also add or tag faces to photos if you want to search images that way and they weren’t’ detected automatically by the Photos app.

EXIF data picture details in Photos for Mac OS X

EXIF data seen in Photos for Mac

While having EXIF data available to the local user is nice, not everyone wants EXIF data to be included in pictures they share online, particularly if they contain location information. For that reason, many photographers like to strip EXIF data from their images, something which is quite easy to do with the help of a separate Mac app. Another option is to disable location data on the iPhone Camera completely, which would prevent the user from having to remove that data or worry about it to begin with, but doing so would prevent some of the kind of fun features like being able to tell exactly where a picture was taken, something that can be done with Photos app and Preview in OS X.

Bluetooth kan gøre dit wifi vildt ustabilt – få forklaringen her – Computerworld

Bluetooth kan gøre dit wifi vildt ustabilt – få forklaringen her

I modsætning til Wifi, hvor en fast frekvens vælges før transmission, benytter Bluetooth en teknik kaldet “frequency-hopping spread-spectrum”, hvilket vil sige, at der hele tiden skiftes mellem mange smalspektrede kanaler.

Min seneste klumme handler om mikrobølgeovne som støjkilder. Her er der tale om apparater, som ikke har til formål at udsende stråling, men som støjer som en konsekvens af deres operation.

Det skal i parentes nævnes, at jeg ikke var specielt imponeret over min mikrobølgeovns evne til at minimere mængden af RF-energi, der undslipper. Jeg overvejer, om jeg skulle besøge mine naboer sammen med lidt målegrej for at se, om det er en tendens, eller om min ovn er specielt elendig. Måske en kommende klumme værd?

I denne klumme vil jeg beskæftige mig med apparater, som har til formål at udsende stråling –  altså apparater, som på samme måde som wifi benytter ISM-båndene til at transmittere data.

Det mest oplagte eksempel kan du sikkert finde adskillige eksempler af på dit eget skrivebord: Bluetooth.

Et liv fyldt med Bluetooth
Min stationære computer står på mit skrivebord, og til den benytter jeg trådløst keyboard og mus. Kommunikationen mellem enhederne foregår ved hjælp af Bluetooth. Min telefon er sjældent langt væk, og den benytter også Bluetooth.

Jeg er overgået fra tobak til damp, og som en rigtig nørd er jeg selvfølgelig gået all-in og har valgt en model, som sender statistikker om effekt, modstand, længde af de enkelte sug og så videre til min mobiltelefon. Via Bluetooth, selvfølgelig.

Min wifi-router står på bordet lige ved siden af, og i praksis har jeg dermed placeret adskillelige støjsendere lige op ad mit wifi-accesspunkt.

Sådan fungerer det
Lad os kigge lidt på, hvordan Bluetooth transmitterer data.

I modsætning til wifi, hvor en fast frekvens vælges før transmission, benytter Bluetooth en teknik kaldet “frequency-hopping spread-spectrum”, hvilket vil sige, at der hele tiden skiftes mellem mange smalspektrede kanaler.

En kanal for Bluetooth er kun 1 MHz bred, og der er i alt 79 kanaler spredt over 2,4 GHz ISM-båndet. Skiftene mellem kanaler, kaldet hops, foregår efter en pseudo-random algoritme med helt op til 1.600 hops i sekundet.

Denne teknik er mindre båndbredde-effektiv end wifi og kan dermed ikke tillade nær så høje data hastigheder. Til gengæld gør teknikken Bluetooth meget robust overfor smalspektret støj.

En hyggestund med spectrum analyzeren giver mulighed for at kigge på, hvordan det ser ud i den fysiske verden (=mit kontor).

Figur 1: Wifi blandet med Bluetooth på 2,4 GHz ISM-båndet. Wifi-signalet er 20 MHz bredt, og Bluetooth-signalerne er alle de små 1 MHz spikes.

Figur 1 er et surface plot, som viser et spektrogram, hvor jeg sampler 2,4 GHz ISM-båndet cirka hvert 10. sekund i en halv times tid. Bemærk, at jeg har rettet antennen mod Bluetooth-enhederne for at fremhæve støjen. I virkeligheden ser det ikke helt så slemt ud.

Bluetooth laver alle de smalspektrede spikes, og det er tydeligt, at der ikke er nogle kanaler, som er fri for denne slags forstyrrelse. Til sammenligning viser jeg i figur 2 samme måling for 5 GHz båndet, hvor Wifi-signalet har det hele for sig selv.

Figur 2: Ingen forstyrrende teknologier på 5 GHz-båndet i mit hjem. Springet i frekvens skyldes, at jeg foretog et kanalskifte under målingen.

Hvad gør det så ved dine datapakker?
Bluetooth dræber ikke dit wifi-link på same måde, som en mikrobølgeovn kan gøre det. Der er mere tale om en “mild irritation”, som under visse omstændigheder kan udvikle sig til noget værre.

Hvis vi betragter latenstiden for linket på samme måde som i klummen om mikrobølgeovne, kan vi se effekten. Men lad mig først vise, hvor godt det kan se ud – når man bruger LAN.

Hvis vi ser godt efter på figur 3, kan man lige ane en linje i bunden af plottet. Det er latency målt mellem min pc gennem en switch til min server. Under et millisekund og stort set ingen jitter. Lækkert!

I figur 4 kigger vi nu på samme måling genem Wifi-linket. Under målingen streames der en film, og samtidig har jeg et torrentprogram kørende for at generere trafik over linket.

Figur 4: Latencyplot for 2,4 hhv. 5 GHz Wifi, 1 meter mellem AP og klient i begge tilfælde

Man ser tydeligt, at “baseline”-latenstiden for det første er cirka 5 gange så høj, som for ethernet, og dernæst at der er masser af jitter.

Der tabes iøvrigt også et par pakker i løbet af testen. Ser vi på 2,4 versus 5 GHz er det tydeligt, at der er langt mere jitter på 2,4 GHz, hvilket skyldes alle de ‘spikes’, jeg viste på frekvensplottet ovenfor.

Når der forekommer en kollision som følge af, at wifi og Bluetooth simultant transmitterer på en bestemt frekvens, koster det typisk en CRC-fejl på wifi-pakken, der så må retransmitteres (det er det, som giver det kortvarige spring i latency).

Figur 5: Wifi-linket kan provokeres til at skifte til en anden kanal, hvis støjen på den nuværende kanal generer.

Bliver wifi-linket tilstrækkelig ‘irriteret’, hænder det, at wifi-linket skifter kanal som vist på spektrogrammet i figur 5.

Det hjælper bare ikke, når støjen stammer fra Bluetooth eller lignende teknologier, da de jo bruger hele frekvensspektret.

Dernæst er konsekvensen af et kanalskifte, at de aktive klienter som minimum oplever et burst i jitter eller momentant pakketab.

Og i værste fald – hvis klienten er af lidt ældre type – betyder kanalskiftet, at linket tabes og klienten må genassocieres med wifi-routeren. Dette kan være voldsomt irriterende, da det opleves af slutbrugeren som om, at wifi-linket er totalt ustabilt.

I disse tilfælde kan det vise sig at være nødvendigt at tvinge Wifi-routeren til at benytte en enkelt kanal.

Denne type støj kommer i øvrigt ikke kun fra Bluetooth. Der er masser af teknologier som benytter 2,4 GHz ISM-båndet. Blandt andet DECT-telefoner, tyverialarmer, radiostyrede biler og fly.

Mine råd til dig som bruger er:

  • Er du gamer, brug LAN! Latency er bare bedre på LAN, og for en gamer er lav latency altafgørende, så der er ingen grund til at give dine modstandere en konkurrencefordel.
  • Har du behov for overførsel af store mængder data mellem klienter i dit hjem (f.eks. mellem NAS og PC), brug LAN! Selv om et wifi-link påstås at være f.eks. 1.000 Mbps, er throughput en helt anden sag. I praksis skal du sjældent regne med mere end 300-400 Mbps reelt throughput. Det slår et Ethernet-link let!
  • Almindelig brug: E-mail, surf, facebook, streaming og så videre fungerer fint over wifi, så hvis du ikke har specifikke problemer med rækkevidde eller lignende, så er det her, hvor wifi er den optimale løsning