Backing up your Raspberry Pi SD card on Mac. The simple way.


Backing up your Raspberry Pi SD card on Mac. The simple way.

It’s very easy to burn an SD card by writing to it too many times. Or irreversibly fuckup your configuration by doing what sudoer should not do. Cloning your SD card, as an image that you can flash on a new card when you need it, is the perfect backup strategy.

Update 1: Some readers reported that this tutorial does not always work with the Raspberry Pi model 3B. I’ve not been able to personally test, so please be aware.

Update 2: This tutorial just backup the boot partition, not the entire SD card. If you want to backup the entire SD card, you have to do some extra steps via command line. Here a complete guide.

Insert the SD card inside your mac. Open Disk Utility app and select the partition you want to backup inside the Raspberry Pi SD card.

Select the partition you want to backup inside the Raspberry Pi SD card

Then select File > New Image > Image from “boot”.

Create an image of the partition

Select DVD/CD master from the Format menu, then Save. This will create a cdr file, which is the mac version of the iso file.

Done! You’ve created a complete clone/backup of your RPi SD card.

Restore your backup

Sometimes in the future you will have to eventually restore this backup. How to do that? Simple, restore the the backup file with with your favourite app. On MacOS I suggest you to use the Etcher app.

Before opening Etcher, you need to rename the file, replacing the .cdr extension with .iso extension.

Done again.

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Best Raspberry Pi projects for iPhone and iPad


Best Raspberry Pi projects for iPhone and iPad

Raspberry Pi logo



Thanks to Apple’s HomeKit, you can setup connected home devices, like lighting, locks, and thermostats to your iPhone and ask Siri to activate them for you. This tutorial lets you use the Raspberry Pi as a relay for Philips Hue lights for some extra DIY fun. Once connected, you can ask Siri to turn on your various connected devices that are hooked up to the RPi.

Siri-enabled temperature sensor using Raspberry Pi



This project also uses Apple’s HomeKit app, but when you set up a digital temperature sensor module, you can have it transfer data from your Raspberry Pi to your iPhone. Then, ask Siri to tell you the temperature in the room where the sensor is set up and you’ll get an accurate reading.

Make any smart device HomeKit supported with Homebridge



Homebridge for Raspberry Pi is an iPhone and iPad app that makes it possible for you to turn a Raspberry Pi into a HomeKit supported hub that works with any smart device, including ones that don’t originally support HomeKit. This tutorial is not for a specific project, but it is a simple, detailed guide for setting up Homebridge on your Raspberry Pi so it can communicate with your iPhone and smart devices.

R-PiAlerts Wi-Fi security system

PRPiAlerts

This project is great for creating an outdoor security system that will alert you when something happens around the perimeter of your house. Using two Raspberry Pi units, you can set one up as a camera and the other as a notification device. Using iOS and macOS compatible software, you can get a notification sent to you, and then check to see if the movement is something you should be concerned with, or just a cat trying to find a warm place to hang out.

iPad as a Raspberry Pi monitor

iPad as a Raspberry Pi monitor

The Raspberry Pi is a pretty incredible little computer. But, many of the projects you need require some sort of monitor in order to get the device up and running with proper software and coding. With this VNC viewer project, you can turn your iPad (or even your iPhone) into a monitor for your Pi, so you can take care of projects without needing to set up your PC monitor (or TV set) with it.

Network-wide ad blocker

Network wide ad blocker

We’re all familiar with the advertisement issues facing our daily web browsing experience. If ads were a little more subdued, we wouldn’t mind them so much. But, some websites take it to a whole new level. Instead of installing an ad blocker to each of your devices individually, you can use a Raspberry Pi to create a network wide ad blocker at the router level. It’s important to remember that advertising is how websites make enough money to stay afloat. We recommend you whitelist sites you visit regularly to help them keep the lights on.

Using Amazon Echo with Siri HomeKit



Excited about Amazon Echo, but want it to work with Siri instead? Well, one DIY gadget builder figured out how to hack Alexa and switch her out with Apple’s personal assistant instead. It is a complicated project that probably takes more time than justifies the result, but if you are a hardcore hacker, you’ll get a kick out of getting Siri to do Alexia’s work.

Anything Else?

What is your favorite Raspberry Pi project that uses the iPhone? Have you built it? How did it go? Show us pictures of your project.

Updated March 2018: Added new great Raspberry Pi projects you can create with the help of your iPhone or iPad.

5 easy steps to getting started using Raspberry Pi


5 easy steps to getting started using Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi

March 14 is known as Pi Day because the date represents the first three numbers in the mathematical constant π (3.14). We’re celebrating with our coverage of everything Raspberry Pi related. If you’ve never even thought of what HTML means, you can still create amazing gadgets using Raspberry Pi and a bit of imagination.

  • What is Raspberry Pi?
  • What you will need
  • Step 1: Reformat your microSD card
  • Step 2: Download NOOBS onto the microSD card
  • Step 3: Set up your Raspberry Pi
  • Step 4: Download the Raspbian operating system on the Raspberry Pi
  • Step 5: Configure your Raspberry Pi

What is Raspberry Pi?

The Raspberry Pi is a mini computer that was specifically created to make tech learning easier. It has a lot of components for computer-based projects, like USB ports, an ethernet port, an SD card slot, Wi-Fi antenna ports, and more.

It does not come with peripherals, like cables, a keyboard, a mouse, or a monitor. It is great for learning program languages, like Python, Scratch, and Wolfram. Most Raspberry Pi enthusiasts like making single-process builds to show off their do-it-yourself talents.

For example, you could create a dedicated gaming device or an external storage box for movies and music. There are a plethora of Raspberry Pi projects that cover all manner of possibilities, each one with different specifications. We have a guide for getting started with Raspberry Pi to help you understand what you will need for your first (or next) project.

Shop Raspberry Pi

What you will need

The Raspberry Pi ships as just the single-board minicomputer. There are a few additional components you will need before you can get started. So, when making your purchase, keep in mind that you’ll need the following extras.

  1. Raspberry Pi — There are six different models of Raspberry Pi. The Pi 2 Model B or Pi 1 Model B+ and Pi 3 Model B are ideal for beginner projects because they are the most versatile and have the widest range of capabilities. The Pi 3 Model B has the added bonus of having a quad-core processor and 1 GB of RAM so it supports heavier operating systems, like Ubuntu and Microsoft 10. The Model A+ is a powerful board for building robotics, but doesn’t have an Ethernet port and only comes with one USB port. So, it’s better for people that are a little more savvy with engineering technology. Raspberry Pi Zero is basically a miniature version of the Model A+, but has a more robust computing power. It has a micro USB port and mini HDMI port for 1080p output compatibility but doesn’t have wireless capability. It only costs $5 and Adafruit sells v.1.3 for just $5, but you can only buy one per order. The Raspberry Pi Zero W is the same single-board computer as the standard Zero but does support wireless and Bluetooth connectivity. It costs $10 on Adafruit, but you can only order one per day.
  2. Power supply — You will need a 5V micro-USB power supply. You can find them for really cheap online. You may even have one from a non-apple mobile device lying around the house. I recommend the CanaKit 5V power supply.
  3. USB keyboard
  4. USB mouse — If you prefer to use a Bluetooth keyboard and mouse, you could just get a Bluetooth adapter. I have a Kinivo BTD-400, but there are dozens of different brands out there.
  5. microSD card — The microSD card must have at least 8 GB of storage. You can purchase one that comes pre-loaded with Raspberry Pi’s New Out of Box Software (NOOBS), but you can also download the software for free from the website, so there is no need to purchase a special NOOBS microSD card.
  6. microSD USB card reader — You’ll need something that you can connect the microSD card to your PC or Mac in order to download software onto it. Adafruit carries one that is perfect for Raspberry Pi, but you can pick one up at just about any electronics or office supply store.
  7. A monitor or TV that supports HDMI or composite video — You can use an older composite video display, but HDMI works better and supports audio transfers.
  8. An HDMI cable or composite video cable, depending on what the screen you use supports
  9. An ethernet cable (or Wi-Fi dongle) — A connection to the Internet is not required for setup, but many Raspberry Pi projects use them.

    What you need

Step 1: Reformat your microSD card

The first step to getting started with Raspberry Pi is to reformat the microSD card that you will use to download the operating system. Even brand new SD cards will have some extraneous files on them. Reformatting it will remove all files and completely clear the card.

  1. Insert your microSD card into the USB card reader.

    microSD card reader

  2. Connect the card reader to your computer.
  3. Download SD Formatter 5.0.

    Download SDFormatter

  4. Double-click on SDFormatter_5.00B.pkg in your downloads folder in your Dock to install SD Formatter 5.0.

    Open SDFormatter installer

  5. Follow the instructions in the installation window.
  6. Click the Launchpad icon in your Dock. It looks like a silver rocket ship.

    Launchpad

  7. Find the SD Formatter 5.0 app.
  8. To move between Launchpad windows, click the Next Page icons at the bottom center of the screen, or swipe to the right or left with your trackpad or Magic Mouse.
  9. Click on the SD Formatter 5.0 app to open it. A formatting window will appear on your desktop.

    Finding apps in Launchpad

  10. Under Select Card select your microSD card from the dropdown menu.
  11. Click Format in the bottom right corner.

    Setting up SDFormatter

When the reformat is complete, you will get a notification window. Select OK to close the window.

Step 2: Download NOOBS onto the microSD card

The next step is to get NOOBS onto the microSD card. Once it’s loaded, you can plug it into your Raspberry Pi and configure the operating system. The microSD card should already be connected to your computer at this time.

  1. Download the ZIP file of NOOBS Version 2.4.5. It is a large file and will take a while to complete. You will want Raspbian, so do not download NOOBS Lite.

    Download NOOBS

  2. Double-click on the NOOBS file from the Downloads folder in your Dock to open it.

    Open NOOBS file

  3. Select the first file inside the NOOBS folder.
  4. Scroll down and Shift + left-click on the last file in the NOOBS folder.
  5. Drag and drop all selected NOOBS files into the SD card icon on your desktop. You don’t have to open the SD card drive.

    Dragging NOOBS files to SD card

  6. Right-click on the SD card icon.
  7. Select “Eject [SD Card Name]”.

    Ejecting SD card

  8. Remove the card reader from your computer.
  9. Remove the microSD card from the card reader.

Step 3: Set up your Raspberry Pi

  1. Insert the microSD card into the card slot on the underside of the Raspberry Pi.

    Inserting the microSD card into Raspberry Pi

  2. Plug the USB keyboard into one of the USB ports.
  3. Plug the USB mouse into one of the USB ports

    Alternatively, connect the Bluetooth adapter into one of the USB ports.

    Keyboard and mouse connected

  4. Turn on your monitor or TV set and make sure it is set to the proper input (e.g. HDMI 1 or Component)
  5. Plug the HDMI or video component cable into the monitor or TV set.
  6. Connect the other end of the cable into the Raspberry Pi.

    Connecting the HDMI cable to Raspberry Pi

  7. Connect an ethernet cable to your router if you plan to connect to the Internet.
  8. Connect the other end of the cable to your Raspberry Pi.

    Alternately, connect the Wi-Fi adapter to the Raspberry Pi.

    Connecting ethernet cable to Raspberry Pi

  9. Connect the power supply to the Raspberry Pi.
  10. Plug the power supply into the power outlet. This will turn on and boot up Raspberry Pi. A power indicator light will begin to glow, letting you know that you are connected,

    Power indicator on Raspberry Pi

Step 4: Download the Raspbian operating system on the Raspberry Pi

Beginners should start off using the Raspbian operating system. It is the easiest to use and there are hundreds of projects out there that use the Raspbian operating system. If you want to use a different operating system later on, you can reconfigure your Raspberry Pi then.

Once you have successfully followed the steps above, a start screen will appear on your monitor or TV.

  1. Select Raspbian.
  2. Click Install.

    Installing Raspbian

  3. When the warning window pops up. Click Yes to confirm. This is just letting you know that the microSD card will be overwritten with an uncompressed version of the Raspbian operating system.
  4. Wait for the installation process to complete.

    Raspberry Pi warning

Once the installation process is finished, Raspbian will automatically begin to boot.

Step 5: Configure your Raspberry Pi

When Raspbian begins to load a bunch of lines of code will appear. This will continue until the boot process has completed. Then, the Raspbian Home screen will appear. You will need to configure your Raspberry Pi system in order to add your location, date, and time.

  1. Click Menu in the upper left corner of the screen.

    Selecting Menu

  2. Select Preferences in the dropdown menu.

    Selecting Preferences

  3. Select Raspberry Pi Configuration under Preferences.

    Selecting reconfig in Raspberry Pi

  4. When the configuration window appears, click on the Localisation tab.
  5. Click on Set Locale… to set your location.
  6. Click on Set timezone… to set your local time.
  7. Click on Set Keyboard… to set your keyboard language.

    Setting Localization for Raspberry Pi

  8. Reconfiguring your Raspberry Pi will require a reboot. When the reboot window appears, click Yes to continue.

    Rebooting Raspberry Pi

You are set up and ready to start using Raspberry Pi. The mini computing world is your oyster. The only question now is, what project will you build?

Updated March 2018: Added information about Raspberry Pi Zero W.

How to connect incompatible accessories to HomeKit using Homebridge | iMore


How to connect incompatible accessories to HomeKit using Homebridge

Wish you could have a house full of HomeKit-enabled products? Homebridge might be able to help with that!

If you’re tired of waiting for your favorite home automation products to get HomeKit support, you might try Homebridge! Homebridge is a NodeJS server that acts as a HomeKit-enabled bridge, linking up non-HomeKit-enabled products to your HomeKit setup. Once you’ve set up a Homebridge server, you can download plugins for non-HomeKit-enabled devices in order to access them with the iOS Home app and control them using your voice with Siri.

We’re going to proceed through the tutorial assuming you want to install Homebridge on your Mac. You can also install Homebridge on Windows, Raspberry Pi, and other devices, but I’ve found the macOS installation process to be fairly straightforward and user-friendly.

Caveats and warnings

Before we dig in to Homebridge, there’s some stuff we need to talk about. Firstly, HomeKit-enabled products are such a small subset of the home automation market for a reason: Apple is very serious about compatibility and security.

HomeKit-enabled products have to go through rounds of testing and adhere to certain security guidelines. The same can’t be said for non-HomeKit-enabled products. Secondly, Homebridge and its accessory plugins are created and maintained by a community of developers — not a company.

If you choose to install Homebridge, proceed with caution and be mindful of what you choose to install on your computer and your devices. Homebridge requires some fussing with code and interaction with Terminal; if you’re uncomfortable with either of those things, it’s best not to proceed with this tutorial.

Lastly, don’t forget to back up your devices; if you mess something up along the way, it’s far easier to roll back changes than having to do a fresh install of macOS.

How to install Homebridge on your Mac

  • The prerequisites
  • Create the NodeJS server
  • Set up the configuration file
  • Understand the configuration file
  • How to install plugins

The prerequisites

  1. Make sure you have Xcode installed on your Mac. It’s free in the Mac App Store — here’s a link to download it.
  2. Download and install Node.js (which comes with the NPM package manager). It’s free — here’s a link to download it.

    Note: Installing Node.js is very straightforward. You’ll install it like any other non-Mac-App-Store application: Download, double click on the file, and follow along with the installation guide.

Create the NodeJS server

Here’s where we’re going to start working with Terminal. You’ll be typing in (or copy-pasting code) to the command line. Follow along step-by-step to properly install Homebridge.

  1. Launch Spotlight by pressing the following keyboard shortcut: Command ⌘ + Space bar.
  2. Start typing in Terminal. When the app appears in Spotlight, you can press Enter.
  3. Once Terminal’s up and running, enter the following to install Homebridge globally:

    sudo npm install -g --unsafe-perm homebridge

  4. Homebridge will be installed using the NPM package manager. Wait until the process is complete.
  5. Type homebridge into Terminal to launch it.
  6. You should see the following message:

    No plugins found. See the README for information on installing plugins.

    That means you’ve successfully installed Homebridge on your Mac!

  7. Quit Homebridge by pressing the following keyboard shortcut: Control ⌃ + C.

Note: If you have trouble installing Homebridge on your Mac, check out the Homebridge support page or visit the Homebridge Slack to get help from the developers.

Set up the configuration file

Homebridge requires two things to add a new accessory to your HomeKit setup: a plugin (more on those in a bit) and an entry in the Homebridge configuration file. We need to create the configuration file before proceeding.

  1. Open up a Finder window and press the following keyboard shortcut: Shift ⇧ + Command ⌘ + G to open up the Go to Folder dialog.
  2. Paste the following path into the Go to Folder dialog:

    /usr/local/lib/node_modules/homebridge and press Enter on the keyboard.

  3. Copy the file called config-sample.json to your Desktop.
  4. Open up a Finder window and press the following keyboard shortcut: Shift ⇧ + Command ⌘ + G to open up the Go to Folder dialog.
  5. Paste the following path into the Go to Folder dialog:

    ~/.homebridge and press Enter on the keyboard.

  6. Drag the config-sample.json file from your Desktop to the .homebridge folder.
  7. Rename the file config.json (delete the -sample portion).

Great work! You’ve installed the configuration file in the proper location. Before we get a little more familiar with the configuration file, you’ll need to download a plain text editor. TextEdit on the Mac is great, but it’s been known to mess up the configuration by changing quotes and apostrophes to “smart quotes” and “smart apostrophes” which is a big no-no for the configuration file. Homebridge suggests the Atom text editor. It’s what I use to edit the Homebridge configuration and it works well!

Understand the configuration file

Open up the Homebridge configuration file (the one you copied to the following location ~/.homebridge) in the Atom text editor. You should see four groups of information: bridge, description, accessories, and platforms.

  • Bridge: This is information used to describe your bridge (like a Philips Hue or Lutron bridge). You can change its name and the HomeKit pin.
  • Description: This is a description of your bridge and the various plugins you’ve installed. You can edit the entire text portion.
  • Accessories: These are individual, bridgeless accessories you’ve connected to your bridge (like a smart switch or plug).
  • Platforms: These are accessories that are typically connected through a bridge (like Philips Hue or Lutron Caséta).

Homebridge will launch just fine with these faux accessories and platforms in place, but I’ve found it’s best to delete them so you can start fresh when you install real plugins. You’ll want to leave the accessories and platforms categories in place — just delete the data inside of the categories.

When you’ve cleaned out your file, it should look like this:

{

"bridge": {

"name": "Homebridge",

"username": "CC:22:3D:E3:CE:30",

"port": 51826,

"pin": "031-45-154"

},

"description": "This is an example configuration file with one fake accessory and one fake platform. You can use this as a template for creating your own configuration file containing devices you actually own.",

"accessories": [ ],

"platforms": []

}

How to install plugins

Homebridge plugins serve as the bridge between non-HomeKit-enabled accessories and the Homebridge server. The plugins speak the language of your home automation accessories and translate your iOS Home app and Siri commands. You can find plugins on NPM; all Homebridge plugins begin with the text homebridge-. I’ll walk you through the installation of a plugin for the TP-Link HS105 Smart Wi-Fi Plug Mini. The installation process is exactly the same for all NPM Homebridge plugins, so you need only to find the plugin that corresponds with your product and follow along!

  1. Visit the NPM site by going to this link. The link will take you to a search query for Homebridge plugins.
  2. Start to type in hs100 until you see the homebridge-hs100 NPM plugin. Click on it.
  3. Underneath the Installation section, look for the text that tells you how to install it.
  4. Open up Terminal and enter the following:

    npm install -g homebridge-hs100

  5. This will install the TP-Link Homebridge plugin, so wait for the process to complete.

  6. Head back to the plugin page and look in the Configuration section. This will show you the text you need to enter into your Homebridge configuration file.
  7. Open up the Homebridge configuration file (the one you copied to the following location ~/.homebridge) in the Atom text editor.
  8. Enter the configuration text in the proper location and save your file. If you’re installing the TP-Link plugin, your configuration file should look like this:

{

"bridge": {

"name": "Homebridge",

"username": "CC:22:3D:E3:CE:30",

"port": 51826,

"pin": "031-45-154"

},

"description": "This is an example configuration file with one fake accessory and one fake platform. You can use this as a template for creating your own configuration file containing devices you actually own.",

"accessories": [],

"platforms": [

{

"platform": "Hs100"

}

]

}

How to connect Homebridge to your HomeKit house

Alright, we’ve got Homebridge installed, we’ve got a plugin ready to go, and we’re ready to get Homebridge up and running! Here’s how you add Homebridge to HomeKit and start controlling your accessories.

  1. Launch Terminal on the Mac.
  2. Type homebridge and press Enter.
  3. Homebridge should launch and begin to load up platforms and plugins.
  4. Head to your iOS device and launch the Home app.
  5. Tap the Add button in the top right corner of the screen (looks like a plus sign).
  6. Tap Add Accessory.
  7. Tap on the Homebridge accessory (mine’s just called Homebridge).
  8. You will see an alert that says, “This accessory is not certified and may not work reliably with HomeKit.” tap Add Anyway.
  9. Tap Enter Code Manually at the bottom of the screen.
  10. Enter the HomeKit code for your Homebridge accessory. You can find it in the Terminal window underneath the text that reads, “Scan this code with your HomeKit App on your iOS device to pair with Homebridge.”
  11. Add your Homebridge accessory and tap Next.
  12. Add your TP-Link Smart Plug (or other accessory you installed with a Homebridge plugin) and tap Done.

Congratulations! You’ve successfully linked a non-HomeKit-enabled smart home accessory to HomeKit. As long as there’s a plugin available, you can add any non-HomeKit-enabled accessories you like. Just be sure to install the plugin, fill out the configuration file, and quit and relaunch Homebridge in Terminal.

How are you feeling?

Installing Homebridge is no small task! Were you able to pull it off? Struggle along the way? Did you find help in the Homebridge support pages and Slack or are you still looking for assistance? I’m looking forward to hearing about your experience and your thoughts on Homebridge; share them with me in the comments below or over on Twitter!

Gør det selv-IoT, del 1: Sådan bygger du en dims, der kan aktivere andre dimser over internettet



http://www.computerworld.dk/art/236461/g-r-det-selv-iot-del-1-s-dan-bygger-du-en-dims-der-kan-aktivere-andre-dimser-over-internettet?utm_source=RSS&utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=RSS

Gør det selv-IoT, del 1: Sådan bygger du en dims, der kan aktivere andre dimser over internettet

Klumme: Internet of Things er tidens store buzzword, men kan man selv ved hjælp af lidt fingersnilde strikke en IoT-løsnings sammen, som kan tilgås fra en åben platform? Følg første del af det store selvbyggerprojekt.

En af mine gode venner, Dan, står bag et nyt smart collaboration tool, Skarpline. Lidt a lá Sharepoint, bare meget bedre. 

Over en øl i juleferien kom vi til at snakke lidt om det, og i den sammenhæng kom det frem, at Dan ville implementere ny funktionalitet, hvor Skarpline kan kommunikere med og kontrollere eksterne systemer. 

Til det havde Dan brug for noget, der kunne bruges til at demonstrere den funktonalitet, og “du dimser jo med alt muligt, så kan du ikke lige strikke noget hardware sammen…”. 

Og før vi vidste af det, gik snakken om at kommunikere med Internet of Things fra en åben platform som Skarpline.

Endnu et godt projekt
Vi nørder er hjælpsomme væsener, så selvfølgelig greb jeg chancen for tilføje et nyt projekt til den stadigt voksende bunke af halvfærdige projekter, der hober sig op i kælderen.

En brainstorm over flere øller startede med den obligatoriske kaffemaskine, men det endte med en lidt mere generisk løsning med muligheden for at tænde og slukke for et par strømudtag over internettet. Og man kan jo stadig tilslutte en kaffemaskine til strømudtaget!

Det er et sjovt lille projekt, og jeg vil benytte lejligheden til at beskrive det for jer. Mon ikke, der er andre derude, som kunne tænke sig at lave noget tilsvarende? 

Og man kan sikkert købe en kommerciel løsning billigere, men hvad sjov er der ved det?

IoT er et af tidens helt store buzzwords, og i modsætning til et af de andre populære buzzwords, big data, der også giver gode point i BS-bingo spillet, så er IoT et område, hvor en GDS’er har god mulighed for at lave lidt hjemme-sjov, som oven i købet kan have god praktisk anvendelse.

Derfor er denne artikel den første i en lille serie på fire, hvor jeg beskriver projektet.

De grundlæggende valg
Første del, som du læser lige nu, handler om at foretage nogle grundlæggende valg og fastlægge af en rudimentær kravspecifikation, og jeg vil skrive lidt om de tanker, jeg gør mig om implementeringen. 

I den næste del vil jeg finde loddekolben frem og strikke noget hardware sammen. 

Tredje afsnit kommer til at handle om konfiguration af platform og installation af den nødvendige støttesoftware, og slutteligt vil jeg i fjerde del fatte tastaturet og bikse en omgang spaghettikode sammen. 

Kravspec
Nu skal jeg blæse bukserne af jer alle med den vildeste dims, i nogensinde har set. Den vil få en kompleksitet og et featuresæt, der får cockpittet i en Boeing Dreamliner til at ligne instrumentpanelet i Fred Flintstones bil, og et industrielt design der er så smukt, at Steve ville have ansat mig på stedet …

Bzzzt (Steen skifter til realistisk chef-rolle)

Når et projekt skal scopes, kan det fremme chancen for succes at vurdere de tilstedeværende ressourcer til gennemførelsen.

  • Antal udviklere til rådighed? Én – (og de udviklere, jeg leder på arbejdet, vil grine r**en i laser, hvis jeg kalder mig softwareudvikler) 
  • Hvor mange procent af tiden kan dedikeres til opgave? Aftener og weekender.
  • Har du andet at lave i din fritid? Hustru+barn+husejer+frivilligt arbejde+stor have+ …
  • Historisk evne til at færdiggøre den slags projekter? Pinligt ringe! Færdig er som regel lig med løs printplade med fuglerede af ledninger strittende i alle retninger.

Godt så! 

Bzzzt (Steen skifter tilbage til en mere realistisk “udvikler”-rolle)

Således ydmyget på skrift for egen hånd, kan vi begynde at scope projektet. Hvad skal vi bruge?

Hardware
Jeg skal altså lave en dims, som kan tænde og slukke for to strømudtag via internettet, og grundet begrænset tid til opgaven vil jeg tillade mig at nøjes med en indkapsling med fokus på sikkerhed mod elektrisk stød (så færdig har jeg aldrig prøvet at være før), snarere end at resultatet ser smukt ud (og det har intet at gøre med, at jeg er dårlig til det visuelle design. INTET siger jeg!).

Så jeg må en tur i Harald Skrald for at skaffe et par LK-udtag og forfra-dåser samt en tur på nettet for at finde en passende plastkasse, som kan rumme herligheden.

En af de mange skuffer i kælderen indeholder nogle 230V/10A relæer. Der skal sikkert laves lidt driverkredsløb, men det kan klares med et par standard-transistorer og et par dioder (skuffe nummer 2). Så langt, så godt

Hvis nu jeg havde masser af tid, og jeg ville lave et kommercielt produkt, ville BOM-kosten samt den fysiske størrelse have betydning. 

Men da jeg mangler tid og til gengæld er lidt ligeglad med prisen pr. enhed, vælger jeg en totalt overkill-standardplatform.

Der er masser af muligheder at vælge mellem. Jeg vælger at benytte en Raspberry Pi til formålet. Hvorfor? Der var en i skuffen! 

En Raspberry Pi er et fantastisk anvendeligt lille print, der indeholder en komplet computer med Ethernet, usb og HDMI. 

Mange benytter dem til for eksempel mediecentre, og jeg bruger selv et par stykker i mit IHC-projekt derhjemme (som jeg måske en gang i fremtiden vil skrive lidt om). 

Raspberry Pi er bygget op omkring en 700 MHz ARM-processor og kører typisk Linux (Raspbian, baseret på Debian). Den kan også køre en begrænset version af Windows 10, men jeg holder mig til Linux.

Til vores formål er den mere end rigeligt. Der er 17 GPIO-pins (general purpose i/o) til rådighed. Jeg skal kun bruge to til relæerne. 

Jeg kan vælge at bruge Ethernet til at forbinde til internettet, eller jeg kan sætte en wifi-dongle i USB-porten. Der er jo ikke nødvendigvis et Ethernetstik lige der, hvor dimsen skal placeres, så jeg vælger at bruge WiFi.

Da man har en Linux under motorhjælpen, er der fra scratch adgang til den fulde pallette af værktøjer, som man har på sin almindelige Linuxkværn. Det gør det meget nemmere, når vi skal til at kode.

Hermed har vi nogenlunde styr på hardwaren. 

Software
Da enheden skal kontrolleres af et andet softwaresystem, skal vi definere et API (Application Programming Interface), så udvikleren i den anden ende ved, hvordan han skal sende en kommando, og hvilke resultater han kan forvente retur.

Dernæst – da enheden skal kunne kontrolleres via internettet – skal vi have et vist minimum af sikkerhed, så en tilfældig fremmed ikke lige pludselig kan tænde for dine elektriske apparater.

Jeg forestiller mig i første omgang bare at implementere en basal brugervalidering og bruge SSL. 

(Bemærk: Hvis dette skulle blive til et kommercielt produkt, skal der bruges væsentlig mere tid på at tænke sikkerheden igennem. Min løsning er quick and dirty.)

Brugervalideringen laver vi som http-digest, der sikrer, at passwordet ikke sendes som klartekst.

Man kunne argumentere for, at hvis vi kører HTTPS, så er det unødvendig med yderligere kryptering af password. Til det vil jeg blot svare https://xkcd.com/1354/

Selve API’et kan laves simpelthen ved at kalde en webside, hvor kommando og parametre er en del af selve URL’en. Websiden returnerer så et svar. 

https://example.dk/control.php?action=&device=



Hvor ACTION kan tage følgende værdier:
ON: Tænd enhed
OFF: Sluk enhed
STATUS: Er enhed tændt eller slukket?

Og DEVICE er den konkrete enhed, man ønsker at tænde/slukke. Vi laver to udtag, så DEVICE kan antage værdierne 1 eller 2.

Returværdien kan være f.eks. DEVICE_1_ON, OFF eller en fejlmeddelelse.

API-dokumentet i sin helhed kan I læse her.

Så rent softwaremæssigt kan vi konkludere, at vi har brug for en webserver, og at den skal køre https. Jeg vælger at skrive koden i php, da det er det sprog til web-serverside, som jeg har mest erfaring med at bruge. 

Vælg det sprog, som du er tryg ved at bruge. Der er ingen krav til performance eller særlig speciel funktionalitet i vores tilfælde, så ‘anything goes.’ 

Afgrænsninger
Hvis dimsen skal kunne installeres og benyttes af folk uden særlig kompetence, bør der tænkes over, hvordan installationsprocessen kan gøres simpel.

Antaget at vi vælger at benytte WiFi, er installationstrinene følgende:

1. Konfigurer WiFi til SSID og WPA-key, som WiFi-routeren benytter.
2. Konfigurer routeren til at reservere en bestemt IP-adresse til dimsen.
3. Konfigurer en ny NAT-regel i WiFi-routeren, som peger en port ned mod dimsens IP.

Det involverer, at man skal tilgå command line på Raspberry Pi’en gennem ssh og besidder viden om, hvordan en router konfigureres. 

Det ville ikke være en acceptabel løsning, hvis produktet skulle kommercialiseres. På grund af den begrænsede tid er det dog denne løsning, jeg ender med at nøjes med.

Hvis nogle skulle have tid og lyst til at gøre det til et mere ‘brugervenligt’ produkt, ville jeg nok foreslå, at man implementerede WPS-funktionalitet (WiFi protected setup), så WiFi kan konfigureres med et tryk på en knap. 

Dernæst ville jeg implementere en basis-UPnP-funktion, så dimsen selv kan åbne en port i routeren via UPnP-IGD. Det ville betyde, at alt hvad brugeren skal gøre for at installere er at trykke på WPS-knapperne på dimsen og routeren inden for to minutter, og så ville alt blive konfigureret automagisk.

Budgetoverslag
Med ovenstående beslutninger burde vi kunne lave et nogenlunde budgetoverslag. 

Da jeg har en del af stumperne allerede bliver det selvfølgelig billigere for mig, men hvis du skulle ud og købe alt så vil dette være den omtrentlige omkostning (du kan helt sikkert finde nogle af tingene billigere, hvis du gør dig den ulejlighed at shoppe lidt rundt).

Raspberry pi incl SD-kort: 350 kr
Wifi-dongle: 150 kr
2 strømudtag inklusivl forfradåser: 210 kr
2 relæer: 40 kr
En stump veroboard + diverse småkomponenter: 50 kr
En passende kasse: cirka 100 kr

I alt: cirka 900 kr 

Er det egentlig dyrt? Denne kommercielle variant koster 1070 kr incl forsendelse, og har fire programmerbare udtag.

Vi kan tilføje udtag til ca. 100-120 kroner pr. udtag, så fire udtag ville bringe vores pris op på omkring 1.150 kroner. For de 70 kroner i mérpris får vi jo oceaner af sjov og spas med elektronik og programmering oven i hatten! 

Og så er det smukke ved DIY, at man kan lave lige præcis de bizarre specialfunktioner, som man har lyst til. Jeg synes altid, jeg rammer ind i en eller anden irriterende begrænsning, når jeg leger med hyldevarer. 

En sidste fordel er bedre privacy, da du med din egen dims ikke risikerer at dele information med en tilfældig virksomhed om dine vaner derhjemme.

That’s it, folks. Næste skridt at få skaffet de ting, jeg mangler, og konfigurere Raspberry Pi’en. Det skriver jeg mere om i næste afsnit.

Husk, I kan følge mig på Facebook, hvor jeg skriver løst og fast om teknologi, og hvor I kan komme med forslag til emner som jeg kan tage op i klummen: 

Min lille private teknologiske losseplads finder I her, hvor jeg dumper de artikler, jeg har skrevet, og diverse andet snask – alt sammen med primær fokus på teknologi.




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Setting up Windows 10 for IoT on your Raspberry Pi 2 – Scott Hanselman


Setting up Windows 10 for IoT on your Raspberry Pi 2

Windows 10 IoT on small embedded devices

Windows 10 Raspberry Pi robotThis week at the BUILD conference in San Francisco Microsoft released the first preview of Windows 10 IoT (Internet of Things) for Raspberry Pi 2 (as well as other lovely devices like the Intel Galileo and MinnowBoard Max).

First, as I mentioned in February the Raspberry Pi 2 runs the Windows 10 IoT version. That means there is no “shell” or Windows Explorer. It’s not a tiny desktop PC, but rather the core brain of whatever embedded maker thing you choose to build with it. The core of it is Windows. You’ve got PowerShell, you can run Windows Universal Apps that you write in C#, and you can talk to peripherals.

Over here at http://microsoft.hackster.io there is a great list of projects you can build with Windows IoT, including a cool robot you can control with an Xbox Controller.

Installing Windows 10 on your Raspberry Pi 2

This is an early build so things will change and get easier I’m sure. To be frank, getting the builds for Raspberry Pi took some confusing on my part to download.

  • Go to the Windows Embedded Connect site and sign in.
  • Pick the Build you want. I got Windows 10 IoT Core Insider Preview Image for Raspberry Pi 2.
  • You’ll need to install this older “File Transfer Manager” if you don’t have it. If you have Chrome, you’ll need to click the “.dlm” file and open it with the File Transfer Manager. You’ll also need to accept two EULAs.
  • Then you’ll get a large ZIP file with the image you want inside. Unzip somewhere.
  • Here’s a kicker, you’ll need a Windows 10 Preview machine to run these commands and install.
    • I built one with a laptop I had around. I’m not sure why Windows 10 is needed. However, once it’s setup you can use Windows 8.1 to talk to the Pi 2 or Remote PowerShell in.
  • You should also get Microsoft Visual Studio 2015 RC.
    • After you install 2015, go try to make a Universal App and it will download the Universal Apps SDK.
  • Follow the instructions here.  Below is my summary along with the gotchas that slowed me down.

Now, plug your micro SD card into your Windows 10 PC (I use a micro to USB adapter) and open an Administrator PowerShell and run:

  • wmic diskdrive list brief and make note of the physical disk number of your SD Card.

next run this and change PhysicalDriveN to whatever your SD Card’s physical number is.

dism.exe /Apply-Image /ImageFile:flash.ffu /ApplyDrive:\.PhysicalDriveN /SkipPlatformCheck

  • NOTE: I had some issues and got “Error 50” on one of my micro SD cards. Changing cards worked. Not sure what’s up.

Now, just put your micro SD card into your Pi 2 and boot up your Pi 2 while connected to a display and Ethernet. It will initially startup very slow. It could be 2 to 4 minutes before you get to the main screen. Just hang in there until you see this screen. This is the Default app and just shows the IP Address of your Raspberry Pi 2.

Installing Windows 10 on a Raspberry Pi 2 

Now, from your local admin PowerShell run these commands to remote into your Pi 2. The default name is MINWINPC but you can also use the IP Address.

net start WinRM
Set-Item WSMan:localhostClientTrustedHosts -Value MINWINPC
remove-module psreadline -force
Enter-PsSession -ComputerName MINWINPC -Credential MINWINPCAdministrator

When the credentials dialog opens, make sure you use yourrpi2machinenameAdministrator or yourrpi2ipaddressAdministrator for the user name. I was just using Administrator. The default password is p@ssw0rd and you should change it.

See here how the PowerShell prompt changes to include the remote machine’s name after I’ve remoted in?

remoting into Windows 10 on a Raspberry Pi 2

On your Windows machine install the MSI that was included in the download. It will start a small watcher utility that will scan your network and look for Microsoft IoT devices. It’s easy to lose them if their IP address changes. It also has a nice right click menu for getting to its embedded web server.

Windows IoT Core Watcher

Included and running on the image is a web server that will let you explore attached devices and running processes.

Raspberry Pi 2 Windows 10 Web Management

You can also deploy applications from here although you’ll usually do it from Visual Studio.

Raspberry Pi 2 Windows 10 Web Management

As of the time of this blog post they didn’t have WiFi and Bluetooth ready yet but they are updating it often so I am sure we’ll see updates soon. Here is a list of devices that work today via USB.

There’s lots of samples. You can make Background (headless) IoT apps or do ones with a UI since the Raspberry Pi has HDMI built in.

Finally, here’s turning on an LED from C# (with comments and defensive code).

using Windows.Devices.Gpio;

private void InitGPIO()

{

    var gpio = GpioController.GetDefault();

    

    if (gpio == null)

    {

        pin = null;

        GpioStatus.Text = "There is no GPIO controller on this device.";

        return;

    }

    pin = gpio.OpenPin(LED_PIN);

    

    if (pin == null)

    {

        GpioStatus.Text = "There were problems initializing the GPIO pin.";

        return;

    }

    pin.Write(GpioPinValue.High);

    pin.SetDriveMode(GpioPinDriveMode.Output);

    GpioStatus.Text = "GPIO pin initialized correctly.";

}

Deploying from Visual Studio

Make sure the remote debugger is running with schtasks /run /tn StartMsVsmon and connect with no authentication while it’s running.

image

Now you can deploy a Universal App (with UI!) directly from Visual Studio:

image

And here is my amazing app. Which is basically just a bunch of controls I threw onto the XAML. But still. Fancy!

My XAML app running on my Raspberry Pi 2 with Windows 10

Windows Remote Arduino and Virtual Arduino Shields

A few other cool maker things worth pointing out are Windows Remote Arduino and Virtual Arduino Shields. Remote Arduino lets you talk to your Arduino from your Windows  machine using the Firmata protocol. Then you can reach out to an Arduino device and give it commands from a Windows Universal app. The Virtual Arduino Shields lets you use a Windows Phone as a well, just that, virtual shields. Shields for Arduino can add up and when you’re prototyping you may not want to shell out for a Gyro or GPS. A cheap phone like a Lumia 530 has like $200 worth of sensors (gps, touch display, gyro, internet, speech, etc) in it that you can exploit.

It’s early days but I’m pretty stoked about all the options that Makers have available. The ASP.NET team is in talks with the IoT folks to see if we can get ASP.NET 5 running on Windows IoT on a Raspberry Pi as well, so stay tuned. Get started here.

Related Links


Sponsor: Big thanks to the folks over at Grape City for sponsoring the feed this week. GrapeCity provides amazing development tools to enhance and extend application functionality. Whether it is .NET, HTML5/JavaScript, Reporting or Spreadsheets, they’ve got you covered. Download your free trial of ComponentOne Studio, ActiveReports, Spread and Wijmo.

About Scott

How to get started using Raspberry Pi


How to get started using Raspberry Pi

Get the basics for setting up Raspberry Pi.

The Raspberry Pi is a mini computer that was specifically created to make tech learning easier. It has a lot of components for computer-based projects, like USB ports, an ethernet port, an SD card slot, Wi-Fi antenna ports, and more.

It does not come with peripherals, like cables, a keyboard, a mouse, or a monitor. It is a great for learning program languages, like Python, Scratch, and Wolfram. Most Raspberry Pi enthusiasts like making single-process builds to show off their do-it-yourself talents.

For example, you could create a dedicated gaming device, or an external storage box for movies and music. There are a plethora of Raspberry Pi Projects that cover all manner of possibilities, each one with different specifications. We have a guide for getting started with Raspberry Pi to help you understand what you will need for your first (or next) project.

What you will need

The Raspberry Pi ships as just the single-board mini computer. There are a few additional components you will need before you can get started. So, when making your purchase, keep in mind that you’ll need the following extras.

  1. Raspberry Pi — There are four different models of Raspberry Pi. The Pi 2 Model B or Pi 1 Model B+ are ideal for beginner projects because they are the most versatile and have the widest range of capabilities. The Pi 2 Model B has the added bonus of having a quad-core processor and 1 GB of RAM so it supports heavier operating systems, like Ubuntu and Microsoft 10.
  2. Power supply — You will need a 5V micro-USB power supply. You can find them for really cheap online. You may even have one from a non-apple mobile device lying around the house. I recommend the CanaKit 5V power supply.
  3. USB keyboard
  4. USB mouse — If you prefer to use a Bluetooth keyboard and mouse, you could just get a Bluetooth adapter. I have a Kinivo BTD-400, but there are dozens of different brands out there.
  5. microSD card — The microSD card must have at least 8 GB of storage. You can purchase one that comes pre-loaded with Raspberry Pi’s New Out of Box Software (NOOBS), but you can also download the software for free from the website, so there is no need to purchase a special NOOBS microSD card.
  6. microSD USB card reader — You’ll need something that you can connect the microSD card to your PC or Mac in order to download software onto it. Adafruit carries one that is perfect for Raspberry Pi, but you can pick one up at just about any electronics or office supply store.
  7. A monitor or TV that supports HDMI or composite video — You can use an older composite video display, but HDMI works better and supports audio transfers.
  8. An HDMI cable or composite video cable, depending on what the screen you use supports
  9. An ethernet cable (or Wi-Fi dongle) — A connection to the Internet is not required for setup, but many Raspberry Pi projects use them.

What you need

How to reformat your microSD card

The first step to getting started with Raspberry Pi is to reformat the microSD card that you will use to download the operating system. Even brand new SD cards will have some extraneous files on them. Reformatting it will remove all files and completely clear the card.

  1. Insert your microSD card into the USB card reader.

    microSD card reader

  2. Connect the card reader to your computer.
  3. Download SD Formatter 4.0.

    Download SDFormatter

  4. Double-click on SDFormatter_4.00B.pkg in your downloads folder in your Dock to install SD Formatter 4.0.

    Open SDFormatter installer

  5. Follow the instructions in the installation window.
  6. Click the Launchpad icon in your Dock. It looks like a silver rocket ship.

    Launchpad

  7. Find the SD Formatter 4.0 app.
  8. To move between Launchpad windows, click the Next Page icons at the bottom center of the screen, or swipe to the right or left with your trackpad or Magic Mouse.
  9. Click on the SD Formatter 4.0 app to open it. A formatting window will appear on your desktop.

    Finding apps in Launchpad

  10. Under Select Card select your microSD card from the dropdown menu.
  11. Click Format in the bottom right corner.

    Setting up SDFormatter

When the reformat is complete, you will get a notification window. Select OK to close the window.

How to download NOOBS onto the microSD card

The next step is to get NOOBS onto the microSD card. Once it’s loaded, you can plug it into your Raspberry Pi and configure the operating system. The microSD card should already be connected to your computer at this time.

  1. Download the ZIP file of NOOBS Verson 1.7.0. It is a large file and will take a while to complete. You will want Raspbian, so do not download NOOBS Lite.

    Download NOOBS

  2. Double-click on the NOOBS file from the Downloads folder in your Dock to open it.

    Open NOOBS file

  3. Select the first file inside the NOOBS folder.
  4. Scroll down and Shift + left-click on the last file in the NOOBS folder.
  5. Drag and drop all selected NOOBS files into the SD card icon on your desktop. You don’t have to open the SD card drive.

    Dragging NOOBS files to SD card

  6. Right-click on the SD card icon.
  7. Select “Eject [SD Card Name]”.

    Ejecting SD card

  8. Remove the card reader from your computer.
  9. Remove the microSD card from the card reader.

How to set up your Raspberry Pi

  1. Insert the microSD card into the card slot on the underside of the Raspberry Pi.

    Inserting the microSD card into Raspberry Pi

  2. Plug the USB keyboard into one of the USB ports.
  3. Plug the USB mouse into one of the USB ports

    Alternatively, connect the Bluetooth adapter into one of the USB ports.

    Keyboard and mouse connected

  4. Turn on your monitor or TV set and make sure it is set to the proper input (e.g. HDMI 1 or Component)
  5. Plug the HDMI or video component cable into the monitor or TV set.
  6. Connect the other end of the cable into the Raspberry Pi.

    Connecting the HDMI cable to Raspberry Pi

  7. Connect an ethernet cable to your router if you plan to connect to the Internet.
  8. Connect the other end of the cable to your Raspberry Pi.

    Alternately, connect the Wi-Fi adapter to the Raspberry Pi.

    Connecting ethernet cable to Raspberry Pi

  9. Connect the power supply to the Raspberry Pi.
  10. Plug the power supply into the power outlet. This will turn on and boot up Raspberry Pi.

    A power indicator light will begin to glow, letting you know that you are connected,

    Power indicator on Raspberry Pi

How to download the Raspbian operating system on the Raspberry Pi

Beginners should start off using the Raspbian operating system. It it the easiest to use and there are hundreds of projects out there that use the Raspbian operating system. If you want to use a different operating system later on, you can reconfigure your Raspberry Pi then.

Once you have successfully followed the steps above, a start screen will appear on your monitor or TV.

  1. Select Raspbian.
  2. Click Install.

    Installing Raspbian

  3. When the warning window pops up. Click Yes to confirm. This is just letting you know that the microSD card will be overwritten with an uncompressed version of the Raspbian operating system.
  4. Wait for the installation process to complete.

    Raspberry Pi warning

Once the installation process is finished, Raspbian will automatically begin to boot.

How to configure your Raspberry Pi

When Raspbian begins to load a bunch of lines of code will appear. This will continue until the boot process has completed. Then, the Raspbian Home screen will appear. You will need to configure your Raspberry Pi system in order to add your location, date, and time.

  1. Click Menu in the upper left corner of the screen.

    Selecting Menu

  2. Select Preferences in the dropdown menu.

    Selecting Preferences

  3. Select Raspberry Pi Configuration under Preferences.

    Selecting reconfig in Raspberry Pi

  4. When the configuration window appears, click on the Localisation tab.
  5. Click on Set Locale… to set your location.
  6. Click on Set timezone… to set your local time.
  7. Click on Set Keyboard… to set your keyboard language.

    Setting Localization for Raspberry Pi

  8. Reconfiguring your Raspberry Pi will require a reboot. When the reboot window appears, click Yes to continue.

    Rebooting Raspberry Pi

You are set up and ready to start using Raspberry Pi. The mini computing world is your oyster. The only question now is, what project will you build?

Fejlfinding på Raspberry Pi

Jeg har rodet en del med Raspberry Pi og Kodi (XBMC) på Raspbmc distributionen.

Inden jeg startede kendte jeg næsten intet til Linux, Raspberry PI eller Kodi (XBMC).

Jeg er kommet ud i nogle situationer, hvor Kodi genstartede i en uendelighed eller slet ikke kunne starte. Jeg har så formatteret SD kortet igen vha.  SD Formatter programmet fra SD Association og startet forfra med installationen.

Årsagen til jeg kom i de situationer, er at jeg bla. har prøvet hvor robust det er. Jeg har bare slukket uden at lukke pænt ned, afbrudt installationen af feks. add-ons osv.

Jeg fandt så en troubleshoot guide, som efterfølgende har hjulpet mig meget, så jeg ikke har skullet reinstallere igen og igen.

Du kan finde guiden her – den kan varmt anbefales – men man skal ikke være nybegynder ud i computere og man skal have lidt tålmodighed. 🙂